Volume 6, Issue 3, June 2018, Page: 66-73
Microcredit and Its Impact on Women’s Empowerment: Some Evidence from Moshi, Tanzania
Christopher Mtamakaya, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oslo University, Oslo, Norway; Department of Health, Moshi Municipal Council, Moshi, Tanzania
Damian Jeremia, Institute of Public Health, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, Moshi, Tanzania
Sia Msuya, Institute of Public Health, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, Moshi, Tanzania
Babill Stray-Pedersen, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oslo University, Oslo, Norway; Division of Women and Children, University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway
Received: Sep. 30, 2018;       Accepted: Oct. 25, 2018;       Published: Nov. 30, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.sjbm.20180603.11      View  20      Downloads  18
Abstract
In Tanzania patriarchy prevails and women continue to be relatively disadvantaged compared to men. As a result women position is low, are poorer, have low education and lack self-esteem. Microcredit has shown to be an effective tool for combating these diseases of the poor, but unlike other developing countries its potential has not been fully explored in Tanzania. This population based cross sectional study explores the impact of microcredit programs participation on women’s empowerment. Logistic regression was done to examine association between participation and indicators of women empowerment. Crude and adjusted odds ratios, P-values and 95% CI were computed to show the association. A total of 900 non elderly women were enrolled, participation was found to be significantly associated with age (p<0.001), level of income (p<0.001) and number of living children (p<0.002). Majority of the study participants had primary education (85.1%) and unemployed (92.1%). Low income earners were 40.2%, program participants were 38% mostly in middle level income group (57.7%). Logistic regression to 18 empowerment indicators revealed a significant association at 5% level between program participation and empowerment. We demonstrated a positive association and concluded the strategy travels well and can empower women in Tanzania. However, efforts are needed to make the programs reach the most disadvantaged.
Keywords
Microcredit, Microfinance, Women Empowerment
To cite this article
Christopher Mtamakaya, Damian Jeremia, Sia Msuya, Babill Stray-Pedersen, Microcredit and Its Impact on Women’s Empowerment: Some Evidence from Moshi, Tanzania, Science Journal of Business and Management. Vol. 6, No. 3, 2018, pp. 66-73. doi: 10.11648/j.sjbm.20180603.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
World Bank. World development indicators/data (2016). Available from http://data.worldbank.org/products/wdi.
[2]
Bhasin, K. (2006). What Is Patriarchy?. Women Unlimited: New Delhi.
[3]
Wamue-Ngare G, Njoroge EN.(2011). Gender Paradigm Shift within the Family Structure in Kiambu, Kenya. African Journal of Social Sciences. 1(3): 10-20.
[4]
United Republic of Tanzania.(2011) Research and Analysis Working Group , ‘Poverty and Human Development Report’ Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
[5]
Bishop D, Bowman K.(2014) Still learning: a critical reflection on three years of measuring women’s empowerment in Oxfam Gender Dev. 22: 253–69.
[6]
Schuler, M. (Ed.) (1986): Empowerment and Law: Strategies of the third world Women Washington, DC:OEF International.
[7]
Korten, D. (ed.). 1986. Community Management: Asian Experience and Perspectives. West Hartford: Kumarian Press.
[8]
Nayar KR, Kyobutungi C, Razum O.(2004) Self-help, what future role in health care for low and middle-income countries? International Journal for Equity in Health. 3(1).
[9]
Moser C. (1989) Gender Planning in the World: Meeting practical and strategic Gender Needs. World Development. 17(11):1799-1825.
[10]
Petesch P, Catalina S, Michael W.(2005) “Evaluating Empowerment: A Framework with Cases from Latin America.” In Measuring Empowerment; Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives, ed. Deepa Narayan. 39-67. Washington, D. C the World Bank.
[11]
Keller B, Mbwewe B.(1991) Policy and Planning for Empowerment of Zambian Women. Canadian Journal of Development Studies. 12(1):75-88.
[12]
Kabeer N. Money Can’t Buy Me Love? Re-evaluating Gender, Credit and Empowerment in Rural Bangladesh. IDS Discussion Paper 1998; No.363.
[13]
Andrews P.( ed)(1989) The Empowerment of Women. In Gallin R, The Woman and International Development . Boulder West View Press:25-36.
[14]
Osmani L. A(2007). Breakthrough in women’s bargaining power: The impact of Microcredit. Journal of International Development. 19: 695-716.
[15]
Faraizi A, RahmanT, MacAllister J. (Ed). (2011)Microcredit and Woman’s Empowerment: A case study of Bangladesh.; Routlodge, London and New York.
[16]
Lakshmi R , Vadivalagan G. (2004). Impact of Self Help Groups on Empowerment of Women: a study in Dharmapuri District, Tamilnadu. Available from http://jms.nonolympictimes.org/Articles/5.pdf.
[17]
Xia Li, Christopher G, Baiding H. (2011). The impact of microcredit on women’s empowerment: evidence from China. Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies. (9)3:239-261.
[18]
Pitt, M., Khandker. S, and Cartwright. J. (2003). Does micro-credit empower women?Evidence from Bangladesh. Policy Research Working Paper No. 2998, Development Research Group, the World Bank.
[19]
Kodamatry M. (2016) Microfinance and Women Empowerment: Self Perception of Beneficiaries- A study with reference to Gandhinagar District of Gujarat. Indiana Journal of research. 5 (1).
[20]
Snow DR, Buss TF.(2001) Development and the role of microcredit. Policy Studies;29:296e307.
[21]
Garikipati, S. (2006). The impact of lending to women on household vulnerability and women’sempowerment: Evidence from India. Research Paper Series no. 2006/25, Management School, University of Liverpool.
[22]
Kessy J , Mtamakaya C , Jeremia D , Stray-Pedersen B, and Msuya S (2015). Microfinance and clientele description –Tanzania. Indiana Journal of research, Vol 4(9).
[23]
Khandker, SR (2005). "Microfinance and poverty: evidence using panel data from Bangladesh." The World Bank Economic Review 19 (2): 263–286. doi:10.1093/wber/lhi008.
[24]
Morris, M., Schindehutte, M., & Allen, J. (2005). The entrepreneur's business model: Toward a unified perspective. Journal of Business Research (Special Section: The Nonprofit Marketing Landscape), 58(6): 726-735.
[25]
Pronyk, M., Hargreaves, J., Kim, J., Morison, L., Phetla, G., Watts C, et al., (2006). Effect of a structural intervention for the prevention of intimate-partner violence and HIV in rural South Africa: a cluster randomized trial. Lancet 368: 1973-83 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69744-4 pmid: 17141704.
[26]
Goetz, A., & Gupta, S., (1996). Who takes the credit? Gender, power, and control over loan use in rural credit programs in Bangladesh. World Development, 24:45–63. 1.
[27]
Doocy, S., Teferra, S., Norel, D., et al. (2005). Credit program outcomes: coping capacity and nutritional status in the food insecure context of Ethiopia. Soc Sci Med; 60:2371-82.
[28]
Dohn, AL., Chávez, A., Dohn, MN., Saturria L., &Pimentel, C. (2004). Changes in health indicators related to health promotion and microcredit programs in the Dominican Republic. Rev Panam Salud Publica 15(3): 185-93 doi: 10.1590/S1020-49892004000300007 pmid: 15096291.
[29]
Hadi, A(2001). Promoting health knowledge through micro credit programs, experience of BRAC in Bangladesh. Health promt Int.; 16:219-27.
[30]
Moon G, Gould M. (ed)(2001), Epidemiology an Introduction, Open University Press. Philadelphia. PA 19106, USA.
[31]
Malhotra A, Schuler SR, Boender C.( 2002) Measuring women’s empowerment as avariable in international development. Paper prepared for Workshop on Poverty and Gender: New Perspectives, World Bank.
Browse journals by subject